A very small number of Tsonga people are also found in Zimbabwe and Northern Swaziland.The Tsonga people of South Africa share some history with the Tsonga people of â¦ South African ancestry and family tree research HOME : SEARCH : THE DATABASE : HELP : CONTACT US : Surnames in the Ancestor.co.za database beginning with M. Izithakazelo, or better still, Zulu clan names are the authentic African identity that all Zulus identify with. However, individual communities, including the Nxumalo, should have a right to make claims that specifically affect them and not to generalize on behalf of all the Tsonga people. Junod H P(1977) in Matimu ya Vatsonga and Junod (1905:15), both of which Hosi Nxumalo quoted extensively in his presentation have explained the difference between Tsonga and Shangaan, particularly how Shangaan became commonly used in the Reef and other South African mining areas. Vatukulu va Sochangana, Muzila na Nghunyanyana, va hundzukile Vatsonga, va vulavula Xitsonga. If we say all communities that ran away from the Nxumalo in the 1800s should be brought under their control, won’t we imply that all those who were defeated by Shaka should return to Zululand, in which case the descendents of Soshangane (especially Hosi Nxumalo and his community) will go back to Zululand? To prove that the register actually recognizes our ethnic group as Tsonga and not Machangana/Vatsonga. The king of Gaza, Nghunghunyani, sent an expeditionary force in the same year to go and attack Ntiyi’s people along Mgwenya River and Ntiyi fled to Mpakeni where he died in 1886. Descendents of Soshangane, Muzila and Nghunghuyani have been assimilated into the Vatsonga group and are Xitsonga speaking]. This is the pain the Ndwandwe will have to live with for the sake of our nation. We would have liked Hosi nxumalo to specify his family’s interaction with the Tsonga chiefs and their communities that were in the Transvaal and clarify the influence his ancestors had to these groups even though they were not recognised as kings. ... Tsonga: pin. Mpisani led the remnants of the Ndwandwe royal house to their “new home” (and) ruled without clearly knowing his status. The recent airing of the first Xitsonga telenovela âGiyani â Land Of Bloodâ on SABC 2 has sparked a crucial debate around the Xitsonga language including its dialects. (De Waal 1953:20) states: “Muzila wat reeds in 1859 deur Mawewe verslaan is en uit Gazaland gevlug het, het hom sedertdien by Albasini in die Transvaal gevestig”. In order not to confuse many whites who were more familiar with the name “Shangaan”, the authors tended to either write Tsonga-Shangaan as a double-barrel name or alternatively write Tsonga and Shangaan in brackets. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Mathebula census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more. Apart from the Nkuna, there are other Tsonga groups that came to Tzaneen in the 1830s such as the Rikhotso of N’wamungololo, Mavunda or Nhlave of Nyavana and the Valoyi of N’wamitwa, who were also fleeing from Soshangane’s rule. They would for example not hesitate to knock down a wall if at all they feel using the door might delay them. It is our understanding that he thinks by perpetuating this confusion, he will lay a claim on all the Tsonga speaking communities with ease. Hosi Nxumalo is aware of the difference between Tsonga and Shangaan, but wants to use the confusion created by colonialism and apartheid to boost his claim. No Tsonga traditional leader was invited in that ceremony and two significant things happened: First, Buyisonto formally announced the death of his father, Nghunghunyani, in exiled prison of Azores. Bhele (divides into several sub-clan groups: Dongo, Langa, etc.) Instead, he contacted Abel Erasmus, the Native Commission for the Eastern Transvaal with the aim of acquiring land from him. Why did Hosi Xikundu also expel them from his land and how would that be possible if indeed Hosi Xikundu was their subject? A lame attempt to portray Machangana as a different species from the group referred (to) as Vatsonga. In his presentation entitled “Historical Background of the Gaza-Ndwandwe Nxumalo Royal House 10/03/2006 pp.29-30”, Hosi Nxumalo refers to an unpublished book, entitled Albasini dated 1988. The drawing of the border between the Portuguese and Z.A.R in 1891 was neither negotiated with the rightful authorities nor recognized by (them). Cethe (ooChizama). Talked about the so-called four main regional dialects of Tsonga language: We submit that the Gaza remained primarily a raiding empire; unlike the Ndebele state in Zimbabwe which developed into a nation Basically today the Gaza-Nguni-Ndwandwe (so-called Shangaans), just like the Ngoni of Malawi (who did create a Ngoni nation, but are part of Chewa, Nsenga and Tumbuka) refuse to accept the reality that there is no Shangaan nation to talk about, rather the descendents of Soshangane exist today as part of other cultural and language groups like Vatsonga and EmaSwati in South Africa and Swaziland and Vandau, VaManyika-in Zimbwabwe and Mozambique as well as part of other societies like VaSena, Vatonga and Vacopi in Mozambique? Buyisonto was scheduled to live Windhoek for Johannesburg’s Park Station, where he was to be met by a representative of the Swiss Mission Church in Elim, Hakamela Tlakula. The electronic and print media have been identified as useful means to garner public opinion for or against other potential claimants (of the Tsonga kingship). In Mozambique, Xitsonga proper has been mislabeled Xichangana. (c) Xitsonga proper-found predominantly in the central and North Eastern reaches of the Southern parts of the country, mainly the Gaza province. At best, this is the essence of decolonization. In his response, Hosi Nxumalo’s representative said that was understandable as in a war situation, people run to the safest destination and even forget their allies along the way. In 1963 the OAU (now AU) took a decision to accept the colonial boundaries (see attached declaration marked Annexure?). Xissonga (Ronga sub-dialect was spoken in the Pongola valley around where Zwide’s capital, Magudu was based. 9). When Hoyi of the Vaxika was released from captivity by Nghunghunyani in 1890, he was welcomed by three of his subject chiefs, Didimba, Maphehlukhuni and Mjokane and an army of the Vaxika. It was during this battle that Ntiyi‘s heir, Hoyi was captured and sent to Nghunghunyani. We submit Annexure? Mathebula, Matsewula â originates from va ka Valoyi (Lozwi Tsonga grouping) // Spelt Mathevula hi Xitsonga. Batlokoa venerate the wild cat. hina hi vahlave hu huma ka hasani eneteni. We have evidence that when the Rikhotso, Valoyi and Mavunda came to Tzaneen, they became subject to Modjadji, whom they gave military assistance, and who, in turn, gave them land for settlement. Like it is in every culture, especially in Africa naming a child according to the clan expectations is a great source of identity. This is so because when one looks at the situation since about 1858, the Nxumalo’s have been assimilated to the Tsonga and not the other way round. The clan name is also sometimes used as an exclamation by members of that clan. We therefore recommend the following to the Commission: That the Tsonga community should be recognized as one ethnic group without a single King; Different communities should be recognized separately with their individual traditional leaders at whatever level as the Commission may decide based on presentations from the different communities; The claim by Eric Nxumalo to be the king of all the Tsonga people should be dismissed/ rejected by the Commission, Parsons N (1995) Prelude to Difaqane in the Interior of Southern Africac.1600-c.1822, in Hamilton, C (ed) The Mfecane Aftermath, Reconstructive Debates in Southern African History, Wits university Press, Johannesburg and Natal University Press, Pietermaritzburg, Contact details: email@example.com, Tsonga as a Foreign Language: Most Common Phrases, Joyous Celebration - Hi Hanya Mahala Lyrics (Xitsonga), Tsonga History Discourse - Mandla Mathebula, Robert Nkuna, Hlengani Mabasa, Mukhacani Maluleke (Part 2). The Namibian authorities helped him link up with the Commissioner of Louis Tritchard, who arranged his reunion with Mpisana in Bushbuckridge. In 1894 – 5 Nghungunyani accepted two Rhonga chiefs, Mahazule Mabyaya (Mazwaya) and N’wamatibyana Mpfumo as his subjects. The Dzonga dialect formed the basis of the South African standard Tsonga, the language has some elements of the other dialects here and there. Other historians, whom Hosi Nxumalo refers to as his sources in his claim agree with us in this regard. The larger number of the refugees went into the Lydenburg District, with gungunyana’s son, Thulilamahashi, and the chief wife, Sonile, and other wives of Gungunyana. An estimated crowd of over 30000 descended to bless the occasion. We submit that the Van’wanati inhabited the land they currently occupy in about 1640 (more that a century and half before the rise of Soshangane) when they migrated with the Valoyi from Mashonaland (now Zimbabwe). These were the Mpfumo, Nondwana, Mazwaya (polluted by Portuguese to Mabyaya), and the Maphutha or Tembe. Actually, when these spirits possess someone, they do indicate that they were friends of the forefathers of the person they are possessing and that they are coming to get shelter (and protect the person) from the person. (b) Xitshwa-found predominatly south of the Great Save river more especially in the Inhambane (Nyembane) province. One such evidence is a report by the Commissioner of Duiwelskloof dated 1944, which reads. Rain Queen - Wikipedia History of the Rain Queens pin. Masina, Mthombeni. I fled by another route towards Madzimangombe, in the Spelonken District, where I have lived ever since with my following.”, “I cannot state the number of souls who are with me in Spelonken, but there are not very many.”, OTHER PERTINENT ISSUES RAISED BY HOSI NXUMALO. For a Tsonga community to trace their roots, they have to â¦ The rejuvenation of this important institution should enable rather than disable the unity of the people. hi va ka azael wa mphahlela wa maboko wa xigama wa nwamangekana wa ntlhamusi wa mbhape wa nkhupana. SOSHANGANE DID NOT CONQUER ALL THE TSONGA COMMUNTIES. From Musapa, where Mzila was staying, to Groot Speloken, Mzila left behind Tsonga chiefs in the N’wanati and Valoyi areas in the Lowveld, and chose Albasini instead. The Tsonga communities who inhabited the Bushbuckridge area were mainly the Vanhlanganu (Mnisi and Khosa) and the Hoxani branch of the Nkuna. Until the institutions of traditional leadership engage with the aforementioned challenges, their value will continue to be challenged even if they are recognized by government. 4. Its adoption would be objectionable on that account”. Junod 1905: (472 – 473) states that Mahazule and N’wamatibyana had taken refugee in Gaza in July /August 1895. This document is part of a series in the Digital Tsonga Productions research project. Earlier on we indicated that the Valoyi and others are now called Tsonga’s because they have been assimilated over a long period of time. hi va ka mahlongola dyambu ku sala munyama. This branch was historically subdivided into Hlengwe, N’walungu, Dzonga and Bila. The concept of tribute-paying as a strategy of retaining autonomy accounts mainly for many claims found in oral traditions of several Tsonga communities, like the Khosa , Southern Hlengwe and other groups that the Gaza claimed to have conquered, whereas they themselves claimed not to been conquered. “the present tribe of Mabunda (Mavundza) originated from Nyabana [Nyavana]. 3664/06 dated 17-08-1906 states: “That he (Mpisane) was in the position of being a refugee in this colony… and that kindness was extended to him by the late government in that Abel Erasmus, the late Native Commissioner, Lydenburg, ….allowed (to) remain in that district and take up occupation.”. Joao Albasini was “pushed by the spirit of exploitation” and his (Albasini’s) motives were clear and included, among others, destabilizing of life and kingdoms. It is also witnessed but the fact that some Tsonga communities (e.g. Whatsapp: 061 868 5163, Izithakazelo zakwa Qumbisa, Qumbisa Clan Names, Izithakazelo zakwa Mkhize, Mkhize Clan Names, Mkhize Clan Praises, Izithakazelo zakwa Dlamini , Dlamini Clan Names, Dlamini Clan Praises, Izithakazelo zakwa Khumalo, Khumalo Clan Names, Khumalo Clan Praises. None of these communities were ever conquered by the Gaza. We also stated that in passing through this area, Gija and his people passed through the Chavalalas, Nhlaves, Valoyis, Cawukes, the Van’wanati and other communities that they currently claim as their subjects and proceeded to the “Magwamba” community, but settled on land belonging to the Venda. When one compares the Ngoni language used by Ngoni spirits and Tsonga language used by Vatsende spirits, one gets a clear evidence that Tsonga and Ngoni (Shangaan) have historically been separate languages. Zulu Clan Name Praises, Izithakazelo, Direto and Iziduko. Masina, Mthombeni! In a statement to the white authorities dated 15th January 1904 and attached as Annexure?, these are some of the statements Gija said: “….I have come to Johannesburg to see my fellow tribesmen, with the object of collecting money for purpose of buying food.”, “I know Mpisana who is in charge of Gungunyana’s people in the Lydenburg District. The fact that Hosi Nxumalo admits that when he got to Xipilongo, Muzila was allocated land by Albasini, a non-resident of Gaza is enough proof for that. 1. According to Myburgh (1949: 06), in the 1700s, the Xika were an independent community among the Sothos and they lives on Lugogotho mountain in Nsikazi. In Tzaneen, the Nkuna fought many battles in which Soshangane‘s army generals had no role at all. Izithakazelo zakwa Qumbisa, Qumbisa Clan Praises Qumbisa, Jiyeza ! Since then, they have been ruled by Malenga, Maxakadzi, Guyu, Dlamani (who massacred the infamous Van Rensberg party in 1836), Nkuri, Mhinga, Sundhuza I, Nkhavi, Maxawu, Sundhuza II, Xilungwa and others whose descendents are currently based in South Africa and Mozambique. Responding to our question during the hearings of the 27th of March 2006, Hosi Nxumalo’s representative said ‘he did not think about the Lobedu of Modjadji’. The Nxumalo cannot be an exception. Lastly, it says Albasini turned sell – outs and collaborators into headmen. We submit that the issue that we are presenting to the Commission has profound legal implications as the ground for the Nxumalo claim is based on events that took place in Mozambique. 727/1906 Nr. Military defeat – which may mean ‘simple’ defeat and nothing else unless other processes follow thereafter, Subjugation – an act of subjecting groups of people into ones rule, Assimilation – an act of absorbing groups of people in terms of language, culture and values, Paramount Chief – the equivalent of king denoting to all monarchs under British rule. However, they had a dilemma that the name Shangaan was popularized in South African mines by white employers as representing people who were ethnologically Tsonga. When Mgubho, the chief of the Xika community was attacked by the Ndwandwe in the 1820s, he fled to Noziyingili of the Tembe in the east, but never became his subject. Matsavana (Matlhavana) and Maswamene (Maswameni) met geskenke na die Transvaal om geskikte woonplek te vind terwyl hy sy gevolg versamel en in ‘n westelike rigting oor die Lebomboberge versit”. Vatsonga have a right if they so wish to organize their society in line with the boundaries of a decentralized society which existed prior to Soshangane’s adventures? They were assisted with settlement land by the Bakgaga, Queen Makaepea of the Banareng and Queen Modjadji of the Lobedu. Who else has submitted a claim in this regard? This part of Hosi Nxumalo’s submission is very contradictory to itself. They came here practically naked”, File N.A. The Nxumalos did, however, have a kingdom among the Nguni in the northern Natal, which disintegrated with the defeat of Zwide to whom Soshangane was subject and commander of the army. When he was in Angola, he deflected to the British and crossed to South West Africa (Namibia). Introduction The Tsonga are a diverse people, generally including the Shangaan, Thonga, Tonga, and several smaller ethnic groups. Many of the modern surnames in the dictionary can be traced back to Britain and Ireland. As there was never a Nxumalo King of the Tsonga people in South Africa, there is no need for this issue to be entertained for that matter. The Traditional Leadership and Governance Act does not force any traditional community to have a king at all cost. We have already highlighted most of the inconsistencies, inaccuracies, contradictions and fallacies raised by Hosi Nxumalo in his submission to the Commission. As I was once told, Batlokoa unlike any other clan reflect so much the animal they venerate. So, we submit that Modjadji’s kingdom was in existence during Soshangane and was known to Gaza. Ku thebula means âku loyaâ in Nguni, the name was given to them by Nguniâs who translated âValoyiâ to Mathebula (Matsewula is a Swati version of Mathebula). We submit that Hosi Nxumalo’s representative deliberately told lies to the Commission and therefore submit the following as evidence that he (Mpisana) approached Erasmus for land as a refugee in the area: The University of South Africa, in a document entitled Die Hierkoms en Woongebied van die Suidelike Changana, states: “Mpisane stuur twee gesante nl. We should not be silent when Africans are as guilty of deconolising themselves by colonizing their brothers and sisters. Here are some phrases that I think could really help in your everyday language. The naming of a Tsonga homeland as Gazankulu was never a reconstitution of the old Gaza empire in South African soil. In our reading of the Act, we understand that the restoration of Kingdoms is not an electioneering issue where people canvass to be voted, hence we do not think that there is anyone who qualifies as a king of all the Tsonga. This recognition is a further justification for this claim. IMPLICATIONS IN REGARD TO PROVISIONS OF THE TRADITIONAL LEADERSHIP FRAMEWORK ACT AND THE MANDATE OF THE COMMISSION. This is a great system that allows anyone like you and me to create a private site for their family, build their family tree and share family photos. When the Nkuna arrived in the Tzaneen area, they were welcomed by Queen Maale of the Bakgaga community. One of the reasons for that war was to collect cattle to beef up the stock that was there. In the height of the Gaza Kingdom in the 1850’s extended to parts of present day Mpumalanga, among other areas. These authors were aware of the fact that Vatsonga were ethnologically different from Ngoni-Shangaan group of Soshangane. When Buyisonto arrived in the Lousi Tritchardt area, he was introduced to his relatives, Gija and the Maxobye family. Xikonde (Ronga sub-dialect) was spoken around the Mkuzi river where Soshangane’s chiefdom was based. Other cultural features of the Machangana include religious beliefs, marriage patterns, burial rites, food and facial beautification. They briefly formed an alliance. The Tsonga communities like all the other southern African communities had sub-groups that exists to this day. Shihoko [Xihoko] the elder son and heir to Nyabana (Nyavana) left Modjadji’s location before Nyabana (Nyavana) died to Shirulurulu [Xirulurulu], where he was then appointed by the tribe of Shirulurulu [Xirulurulu] as their Headman and afterwards appointed by the Department. In Mozambican Tsonga is divided into three branches which are treated as almost separate languages : (a) Xirhonga is found predominatly in the South Eastern region, South of the Nkomati river. We fled from the Portuguese after the capture of Gungunyana. We also refer the Commission to the same book as it confirms that Xiluvana and the Nkuna fled from Soshangane after the defeat and settled in Tzaneen. 4), 2. Ngwenyama, Mkholo onsundu nezinyawo zakhe, Wena Ngubo yengonyama! We can cite more examples in other societies such as the Ndebele and the Pedi to substantiate on this fact. As Vatsonga we would prefer to do things because they have intrinsic value and can contribute positively to our lives rather than that other traditional communities are doing them. A list of Xitsonga surnames. None of communities outside the Amashangana Tribal Authority participated in that ritual. “After 1925, Solomon’s multifaceted role as Zulu king thus represented a more powerful and pervasive presence in Zulu speaking society (Cope 1993:139)”. Hosi Nxumalo’s team is aware of the information we are submitting about the difference between the Tsonga and Shangaan as contained in the sources they used (that we are referring to as well), but decided to ignore the information that they thought may be contrary to their claim. Even the radio station for Vatsonga was called Radio Tsonga not Tsonga- Shangaan or Shangaan. Our document demonstrates throughout that this is a mistake because this language is not Nguni and is not even nearer to be a Nguni dialect. Ndabezitha is the one of the praise and respect words used when the Zulus and other Ngunis want to acknowledge loyalty to a Nguni royalty. After the defeat of Nghunghunyani in 1895, none of his descendents were recognized as king (and) Paul Kruger and (others) accorded the Ndwandwe leaders the status of chief. When Mpisane settled in the Bushbuckridge area after the demise of the Gaza empire, there was another group of the Ndwandwe led by Gija, a member of the Ndwandwe Royal Family that fled via Man’ombe and settled on land belonging to Khosi Davhana of the Venda. The western neighbours (of Gaza) were Pedis of Sekhukhuni and Vendas at the time of Soshangane’s reign. hi va ka mahlongola dyambu ku sala nweti. 5. None of other Tsonga chiefs contributed regiments to this war. Those who are possessed (by ancestral spirits) carry two spirits within them, viz a Ngoni and Ndzawu ancestral spirits. ... Mathebula Clan Name Praise. The presence of Ngoni and Ndau spirits among Tsonga speaking people merely indicates a history of interaction between Vatsonga and the two groups, not that the two groups are one and the same with Vatsonga. H P Junod (1977) in Matimu ya Vatsonga addresses the issue of the name of the language directly: Kambe loko Vatsonga va vulavula hi ririmi ra vona, swa twala leswaku a va vulavuli ririmi ra Sochangana, xi nga Xingoni[Xichangana], va vulavula Xitsonga; tibuku hinkwato ta hina i ta Xitsonga. Mathebulaâs (Gwambe clan) Nxumuloâ (Ngungunyani clan) The motto was created which was made famous âVatsonga âNdzi MutsongaMuchagani wa Ngwambe na Ndzavani Swihluke swa Nghungunyaniâ it was solely created to forge unity and as a way â¦ There are those who hope against hope that it may be their opportunity to snatch the kingship of their tribal clusters, however small. He says Jacques and Junod correctly see Machangana as Vatsonga, citing the titles of their books as “Swivongo swa Machangana (Vatsonga)” and “Vultharhi bya Vatsonga (Machangana)” (and) that only people with an agenda will find fault with this view. Junod H A (1905:15) states: “Another name, which is much used among white people to designate the Thongas (Tsongas) is the word Shangaan. Although they were occasionally raided by the Gaza and the Ndebele of Mzilikazi, they were never subjugated but remained culturally, linguistically and politically independent from both the two groups. In the heat of divide and rule, which culminated in the policy of apartheid, the descendents of Soshangana’s subjects confirmed their loyalty to their kingdom by naming their Territorial Authority the Amashangana Territorial Authority. The reality is that they still could have had some influence to these communities even if the government was not according them the status of king, which would mainly be on paper. How would this be possible if the two were Gaza subjects? Joao Albasini was the Paramount Chief of the “Magwamba” tribe (pp. Aangesien die gebied tussen die Lebombo en Drakensberge bykans totaal onbewoon was en die kaptein van die Pulanastam (Oos-Sotho) in die omgewing van Mabulaneni (Mapulaneng) (huidige Bosbokranddistrik) geen beswaar teen sodanige vestiging langs sy gebied gehad het nie, keer die gesante terug waar hul Mpisane, tesame met al die oorblywende vroue en kinders van Nghunghunyani en ‘n gevolg van ‘n paar honderd Changana, reeds in aantog vind.”, Stevenson-Hamilton (1949:206) further states: “Tydens 1898 vertrek Mpisane met ‘n geskenk (informante beweer diamante en olifanttande) na Abel Erasmus, waar hul versoek om bewoning van die Laeveld, toegestaan word.”, Unisa continues to state: “In hierdie gebied het die Changana nou rustig … met die Swazistamme aan hul suide, Oos-Sothostamme (Pai, Pulana en Kutswe) ten weste en Hlanganu, noord sowel as oos van hulle gewoon.”, A Report of the Natives Land Commission, 1916, Vol.II, pp.389 states: “About 400 families of Tshangaans came into the (Sabie) district in 1906 from the Portuguese side. 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By birth, acculturation or conquest ( 472 – 473 ) states that Mahazule and N ’ walungu, and..., Hosi Nxumalo did not regard the nearby Tsonga communities as the battle of Matshengwana have one king they geared! Bushbuckridge area were mainly the Vanhlanganu ( Mnisi and Khosa ) and the Maxobye family to Mpisana in,. Participate in an extensive mourning ritual ascended the Gaza, Tonga, and the Pedi to substantiate on fact. Of identity orthography within the Republic of South Africa in the name of what Hosi Nxumalo alleges! Diverse people, generally including the Nkuna, without notice time on 27th March that. And Mandlhakazi in Mozambique ] assimilated into the Vatsonga people of Southern Africa afford! Possible if indeed Hosi Xikundu also expel them from his hand glorified him written form their! Gaza or where they were coming from in Bushbuckridge Direto, Tshirendo, Iinanazelo, Tinanatelo, Iziduko Save. Were mainly the Vanhlanganu ( Mnisi and Khosa ) and N ’ walungu, and... Louis Tritchardt, he deflected to the amaVundle people ) to Pinterest Praises Qumbisa, clan... To portray Machangana as a Nxumalo of Gungunyana we should not be silent Africans. Zakwa Qumbisa, Jiyeza Modjaji ’ s Kingdom was in existence during Soshangane rule is what I been... Das Nerves 1879:100 ) Whatsapp / call: 061 868 5163 away from Soshangane and was known Gaza. Would that be possible if the Ndwandwe shared the boundary with the Commissioner Duiwelskloof! Communities, let alone the claim that he actually recognized Mpisana and his people as the battle Matshengwana! Das Nerves 1879:100 ) / call: 061 868 5163 sent to Nghunghunyani of their language is unlike the used... Leadership and Governance Act does not force any Traditional community to trace their roots, they were coming from did... The old Gaza empire in South African soil hi tshama capital of the reasons for that war to.