/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<8AAF0346A0485049BE474FD0E5DE3241>]/Index[212 43]/Info 211 0 R/Length 120/Prev 872263/Root 213 0 R/Size 255/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream We addressed the crape myrtle bark scale in this column last year, but some of the recommendations made by OSU regarding control have changed. 2017. Crapemyrtle bark scale was first observed feeding on crapemyrtle in Richardson, Texas, a Dallas suburb in 2004. Chemical control: Because crapemyrtle bark scale is not yet found in Florida, any discovered populations should be eradicated as soon as possible to slow further spread within the state. Chen Y, Merchant M, Vafaie E, Gu M, Robbins J. 2014). Long, cool autumns yield the best leaf display; sudden frosts following warm, humid fall weather often freeze leaves while theyre still green, ruining the show. Additional Resources Crape Myrtle Bark Scale Identification and Control, Publication 2938. Adult females are felt-like white or gray encrustations that stick to crape myrtle parts ranging from small twigs to large trunks. Azalea bark scale, Acanthococcus (=Eriococcus) azalea (Comstock), is another felt scale in North America, but does not feed on crapemyrtle. Therefore, if new populations of crapemyrtle bark scale were discovered in Florida, they should be eradicated quickly. As with most insects, there are several life stages and the appearance of CMBS changes with the stages. For example, it does not feed on crapemyrtle and is primarily a pest on azaleas (Rhododendron species). The crape myrtle bark scale, Eriococcus lagerstroemiae Kuwana, is a newly introduced insect pest of crape myrtle, Lagerstroemia spp. 18, No. Note: There are a several common names for Lagerstroemia species (e.g., crapemyrtle, crape myrtle, crepe myrtle) and these sometimes carry over to the scale insect’s common name, such as crape myrtle bark scale. To keep a crape myrtle at a manageable height, prune moderately by removing all twiggy growth back to main branch from which it emerged. Crepe myrtle scale arrived here a few years ago as an accidental import from Asia. So far, no cultivars of crapemyrtle are known to have high levels of resistance to the scale. Prospective volunteers must fill make a profile on ok.4honline.com and complete a background check issued by Oklahoma County 4-H. ; Information is then requested from three references provided by the potential volunteer (preferably one personal character, one work-related, and one family member). By 2014, DNA and morphological tests helped scientists identify this species as Acanthococcus (=Eriococcus) lagerstroemiae, a felt scale from Asia that is known to feed on crapemyrtle species. Photograph by Jim Robbins, University of Arkansas CES, Bugwood.org. Bark and Systemic Insecticidal Control of. Counties with verified reports of crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana), as of May, 2018. Each female lays about 60 to 250 eggs, which may over-winter within their ovisacs, and then hatch during mid- to late April to May. Entomology and Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University 127 Noble Research Center, Stillwater, OK 74078 405.744.5527. Infested trees may force the owner or landscape manager to choose between having an eyesore in their landscape, paying for relatively costly annual scale treatments, or replacing the tree altogether (Layton 2015). This species was formerly known as Eriococcus lagerstroemiae Kuwana, so this name may be found in many publications. Figure 4. 2015, Wang et al. For small plants, inspect all woody parts before purchasing or placing in the landscape. Photograph by Mengmeng Gu, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service, Bugwood.org, #5515604. 2014, Layton 2015). Crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana), close-up of infestation. As of spring 2018, crapemyrtle bark scale was reported in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and Washington. Any sharp point can be used to break open the white felt-like covering to see if a female scale is moist and alive, or has clusters of pink eggs present (Layton 2015, Robbins et al. Figure 5. 2014, Layton 2015). They are top-sellers in the nursery trade, with the annual wholesale value estimated to be $66 million in 2014 (2014 Census of Horticultural Specialties). Some ant species feed on the sugary honeydew produced by scale insects, and ants sometimes play a role in starting new infestations by moving scales to other plants and by reducing biological control by protecting scale insects from predators (Cai et al 2015). Robbins J, Hopkins J, Merchant M, Gu M. 2014. Many people who call us describe their trees as covered in white dots, or white cotton like bumps. Crape Myrtle Bark Scale Identification and Control Crape myrtle bark scale (CMBS) is a serious new threat to southern crape myrtles. However, this scale has a different host range that is not known to overlap with that of crapemyrtle bark scale. Based on regional climates in the U.S., scientists have generated predictions of where this insect may spread. As it feeds, it excretes a sugary solution known as “honeydew” (similar to aphids, whiteflies, and other sucking insects). Managing Scale Insects on Ornamental Plants More mature scale insects are white to gray and up to 2 mm in length. This scale lives and thrives on crape myrtle, suggesting a different identity for it. During the first stage (also called crawlers) the nymphs are mobile and can spread to new woody growth of the plant. Crape myrtle bark scale (CMBS) is not deadly to most crape myrtles, but can affect the quality of the plants and greatly the health and longevity in the landscape, according to Haase. Vafaie EK., and Knight CM. In August, the first documented case in South Carolina was found by skilled Historic Columbia horticulturist Keith Mearns. In its na-tive range, this scale, tentatively identified as crape myrtle bark scale (CMBS, Eriococ- Crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana), infestation with sooty mold covering the bark. The crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus (=Eriococcus) lagerstromiae(Kuwana), was first confirmed in the USA in 2004 in the landscape near Dallas (TX), although it was likely introduced earlier. Eriococcus lagerstroemiae, also known as crape myrtle scale, is a small insect that infests crape myrtle trees.It was first seen in Dallas, Texas in 2004 and was thought to be brought in through illegal trade. The insect was first noted in McKinney, Texas (self-designated as America’s “crapemyrtle city”), in 2005 and had spread throughout most of the Dallas-Fort Worth area by … Plant removal and chemical control are the most effective ways to do this. Several species of lady beetle larvae feeding on an infestation of Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana). Best results have been achieved with the use of systemic insecticides applied as a drench or soil injection to the root zone in early summer, or just before peak crawler activity (Gu et al. One adult, several pre-pupae, and many pupae of twice-stabbed lady beetle after feeding on an infestation of Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana). Resources - Layton, B. Bark Scale along the branch of a Crape Myrtle. 4 through 6). Photograph by United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org. The nymphs, are also pink and develop through three stages, turning a darker pink, grey, or brown color as they mature (Gu et al. Since then, it spread rapidly. According to Texas AgriLife Extension, this harmful pest is newly introduced from the Far East. Although crapemyrtle bark scale has not yet been found on other hosts in North America, it has been reported feeding on a number of other species in Asia and Hungary (See http://scalenet.info for a full list). 2015). As of spring 2018, crapemyrtle bark scale was reported in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and Washington. Under - magnif ication, adult females are pink and measure about 2 When crushed, these scales exude pink “blood”-like liquid. 2014). For a complet e list of products available for managing scale insects in nurseries, see Oklahoma . 3. 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crape myrtle scale oklahoma

Heavy infestations are easily seen due to abundant black sooty mold and patches of the white or gray scales on the trunk, branches, and twigs of crapemyrtle. The crepe myrtles are among the most satisfactory of plants for the South: showy summer flowers, attractive bark, and (in many cases) brilliant fall color make them year-round garden performers. However, the appearance of white scale bodies on bark and the pink liquid associated with crushed scales are diagnostic characteristics of CMBS. Some nymphs form a white sac and develop into prepupa (c) and then to pupa further inside, before becoming an alate male (e). Most new infestations have been found in Texas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. 2018. Figure 6. Photograph by Chris Evans, University of Illinois, Bugwood.org. Any stage of the scale can overwinter, especially the nymphs, which can be found nearly year-round. Crapemyrtle is considered a low-maintenance tree and is enormously popular, especially in the urban landscape. This will give the plant a more uniform appearance. Branch dieback and stunted growth has been occasionally observed, but is probably not a primary concern. Crape myrtle bark scale is relatively easy to identify. Based on regional climates in the U.S., scientists have generated predictions of where this insect may spread. Native to Asia, the crape scale bark scale first was reported in the United States during 2004 on crape myrtles in a landscape plant nursery in Richardson, Texas (Dallas County). If the plant is to be removed and transported for any reason, including destruction, it should be carefully bagged to avoid scales being blown off the plant and into new landscapes during transportation (Layton 2015). Monitor for ants moving up and down crapemyrtle trees. Always inspect crapemyrtles carefully before purchasing or planting, especially if they originated from parts of the southeast where crapemyrtle bark scale is already established. In the future, plant selection may play an important role in management. 2016). The crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus (=Eriococcus) lagerstroemiae (Kuwana), is an invasive felt scale in the family Eriococcidae (or Acanthococcidae, as the taxonomy of this family is still being debated). L. (Myrtales: Lythraceae) (Figure 1). 2014). %%EOF 2014, Robbins et al. Figure 1. 2014, Wang et al. Crapemyrtle bark scale: A new threat for crapemyrtles, a popular landscape plant in the U.S. Insects. It is widely distributed through most of North America (Merchant et al. Since the initial sighting in 2004, the crape myrtle bark scale (CMBS) insect has been spreading at an alarming rate across the Southeast. Nymphs that hatch from the eggs (a) are highly mobile and are called “crawlers” (b). Crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana), adult females and opened egg sacs. Plant removal and chemical control are the most effective ways to do this. Photograph by Gary Brooks, Bayer Crop Science, Bugwood.org. Crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana), bleeds pink when damaged. The primary host in North America, crapemyrtle, Lagerstroemia spp., are deciduous flowering trees popular in ornamental landscapes. Database. 212 0 obj <> endobj Additional research on crape myrtle phenology, which is the timing of bud break, first bloom and full bloom, if proven to be correlated to scale activities, will also help time the application on crawlers. Other nymphs form a white, felt-like sac and develop into prepupa and then to pupa further inside, eventually pupating to emerge as tiny, winged adult males (alates). Cultural control: Some observations suggest that crapemyrtle bark scale infestations may be correlated to shade levels, adding credence to the recommendation that crapemyrtles should be planted in full-sun locations (Cai et al. Using this information, north Florida is at a moderate to high risk of becoming infested (Wang et al. 2016). The most effective of these seem to be twice-stabbed lady beetles, such as Chilocorus stigma and Chilocorus cacti (Cai et al. The IAS crape myrtle bark scale was first detected in Texas in 2004 and is now found in Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia. Biological control: Several predators serve as biological control for crapemyrtle bark scale in the southeast. 2018. Look for injuries or pruning wounds on the trunk and branches, as scale infestations often start at these sites. Once the mated females produce their ovisacs (egg-containing capsules) and lay eggs, they die. Only the nymphs and adult females feed and secrete honeydew, which can lead to sooty mold growth (Wang et al. Mechanical control: Prior to treatment of heavily infested plants, it can be helpful to wash the reachable branches with a mild soap solution and a soft scrubbing brush. The small CMBS males are winged and will fly to find females and to mate. Crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana), infesting young crapemyrtle branches. h�bbd```b``� �3@$�V�6�.�l`�1X�C0�"Y��li0�&����`� �QDrE�٦ rF�d,� b�N��M�L�ρՈ�? h�b```f``Z���� l� ̀ �,@Q���=��|8�����2�����^dz��I�No�CI�XGG30x������6��4��# -�`3L0F1�7� Borden MA, Dale AG. Prune For A Shrub Look Crape myrtle bark scale (CMBS) insect has been found in Fauquier. Up close, CMBS is whit… The bark scale is in a classification of scale insects known as felt scales, and has an appearance similar to a puffed up grain of white rice. If you live in the Mid-South, you most likely have a crepe myrtle in your yard or … The scale insect is widely distributed in Asia, especially China, which is thought to be its native range. 2018, Wang et al. 2014). 237 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<8AAF0346A0485049BE474FD0E5DE3241>]/Index[212 43]/Info 211 0 R/Length 120/Prev 872263/Root 213 0 R/Size 255/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream We addressed the crape myrtle bark scale in this column last year, but some of the recommendations made by OSU regarding control have changed. 2017. Crapemyrtle bark scale was first observed feeding on crapemyrtle in Richardson, Texas, a Dallas suburb in 2004. Chemical control: Because crapemyrtle bark scale is not yet found in Florida, any discovered populations should be eradicated as soon as possible to slow further spread within the state. Chen Y, Merchant M, Vafaie E, Gu M, Robbins J. 2014). Long, cool autumns yield the best leaf display; sudden frosts following warm, humid fall weather often freeze leaves while theyre still green, ruining the show. Additional Resources Crape Myrtle Bark Scale Identification and Control, Publication 2938. Adult females are felt-like white or gray encrustations that stick to crape myrtle parts ranging from small twigs to large trunks. Azalea bark scale, Acanthococcus (=Eriococcus) azalea (Comstock), is another felt scale in North America, but does not feed on crapemyrtle. Therefore, if new populations of crapemyrtle bark scale were discovered in Florida, they should be eradicated quickly. As with most insects, there are several life stages and the appearance of CMBS changes with the stages. For example, it does not feed on crapemyrtle and is primarily a pest on azaleas (Rhododendron species). The crape myrtle bark scale, Eriococcus lagerstroemiae Kuwana, is a newly introduced insect pest of crape myrtle, Lagerstroemia spp. 18, No. Note: There are a several common names for Lagerstroemia species (e.g., crapemyrtle, crape myrtle, crepe myrtle) and these sometimes carry over to the scale insect’s common name, such as crape myrtle bark scale. To keep a crape myrtle at a manageable height, prune moderately by removing all twiggy growth back to main branch from which it emerged. Crepe myrtle scale arrived here a few years ago as an accidental import from Asia. So far, no cultivars of crapemyrtle are known to have high levels of resistance to the scale. Prospective volunteers must fill make a profile on ok.4honline.com and complete a background check issued by Oklahoma County 4-H. ; Information is then requested from three references provided by the potential volunteer (preferably one personal character, one work-related, and one family member). By 2014, DNA and morphological tests helped scientists identify this species as Acanthococcus (=Eriococcus) lagerstroemiae, a felt scale from Asia that is known to feed on crapemyrtle species. Photograph by Jim Robbins, University of Arkansas CES, Bugwood.org. Bark and Systemic Insecticidal Control of. Counties with verified reports of crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana), as of May, 2018. Each female lays about 60 to 250 eggs, which may over-winter within their ovisacs, and then hatch during mid- to late April to May. Entomology and Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University 127 Noble Research Center, Stillwater, OK 74078 405.744.5527. Infested trees may force the owner or landscape manager to choose between having an eyesore in their landscape, paying for relatively costly annual scale treatments, or replacing the tree altogether (Layton 2015). This species was formerly known as Eriococcus lagerstroemiae Kuwana, so this name may be found in many publications. Figure 4. 2015, Wang et al. For small plants, inspect all woody parts before purchasing or placing in the landscape. Photograph by Mengmeng Gu, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service, Bugwood.org, #5515604. 2014, Layton 2015). Crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana), close-up of infestation. As of spring 2018, crapemyrtle bark scale was reported in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and Washington. Any sharp point can be used to break open the white felt-like covering to see if a female scale is moist and alive, or has clusters of pink eggs present (Layton 2015, Robbins et al. Figure 5. 2014, Layton 2015). They are top-sellers in the nursery trade, with the annual wholesale value estimated to be $66 million in 2014 (2014 Census of Horticultural Specialties). Some ant species feed on the sugary honeydew produced by scale insects, and ants sometimes play a role in starting new infestations by moving scales to other plants and by reducing biological control by protecting scale insects from predators (Cai et al 2015). Robbins J, Hopkins J, Merchant M, Gu M. 2014. Many people who call us describe their trees as covered in white dots, or white cotton like bumps. Crape Myrtle Bark Scale Identification and Control Crape myrtle bark scale (CMBS) is a serious new threat to southern crape myrtles. However, this scale has a different host range that is not known to overlap with that of crapemyrtle bark scale. Based on regional climates in the U.S., scientists have generated predictions of where this insect may spread. As it feeds, it excretes a sugary solution known as “honeydew” (similar to aphids, whiteflies, and other sucking insects). Managing Scale Insects on Ornamental Plants More mature scale insects are white to gray and up to 2 mm in length. This scale lives and thrives on crape myrtle, suggesting a different identity for it. During the first stage (also called crawlers) the nymphs are mobile and can spread to new woody growth of the plant. Crape myrtle bark scale (CMBS) is not deadly to most crape myrtles, but can affect the quality of the plants and greatly the health and longevity in the landscape, according to Haase. Vafaie EK., and Knight CM. In August, the first documented case in South Carolina was found by skilled Historic Columbia horticulturist Keith Mearns. In its na-tive range, this scale, tentatively identified as crape myrtle bark scale (CMBS, Eriococ- Crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana), infestation with sooty mold covering the bark. The crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus (=Eriococcus) lagerstromiae(Kuwana), was first confirmed in the USA in 2004 in the landscape near Dallas (TX), although it was likely introduced earlier. Eriococcus lagerstroemiae, also known as crape myrtle scale, is a small insect that infests crape myrtle trees.It was first seen in Dallas, Texas in 2004 and was thought to be brought in through illegal trade. The insect was first noted in McKinney, Texas (self-designated as America’s “crapemyrtle city”), in 2005 and had spread throughout most of the Dallas-Fort Worth area by … Plant removal and chemical control are the most effective ways to do this. Several species of lady beetle larvae feeding on an infestation of Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana). Best results have been achieved with the use of systemic insecticides applied as a drench or soil injection to the root zone in early summer, or just before peak crawler activity (Gu et al. One adult, several pre-pupae, and many pupae of twice-stabbed lady beetle after feeding on an infestation of Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana). Resources - Layton, B. Bark Scale along the branch of a Crape Myrtle. 4 through 6). Photograph by United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org. The nymphs, are also pink and develop through three stages, turning a darker pink, grey, or brown color as they mature (Gu et al. Since then, it spread rapidly. According to Texas AgriLife Extension, this harmful pest is newly introduced from the Far East. Although crapemyrtle bark scale has not yet been found on other hosts in North America, it has been reported feeding on a number of other species in Asia and Hungary (See http://scalenet.info for a full list). 2015). As of spring 2018, crapemyrtle bark scale was reported in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and Washington. Under - magnif ication, adult females are pink and measure about 2 When crushed, these scales exude pink “blood”-like liquid. 2014). For a complet e list of products available for managing scale insects in nurseries, see Oklahoma . 3. Note that a soap solution for this purpose should not be sprayed on other parts of the plant for pest control purposes, as only insecticidal soap products are designed and labeled for foliage treatments. Lagerstroemia species are native to the same region in Asia as crapemyrtle bark scale and is a preferred host. They actively search for adult females. crape myrtle has never before been report-ed as a host plant for azalea bark scale. }�L@�%�]��H�?��G� �l Buy from reputable nurseries who are knowledgeable about crapemyrtle bark scale and inspect outgoing plants (Robbins et al. Growing area across the southeastern United States National Collection of scale insect is black sooty covering! Is also found in Texas, Oklahoma State University 127 Noble Research Center, Stillwater, OK 74078 405.744.5527 sites... 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The primary damage from crapemyrtle bark scale and appears virtually identical N, Tripodi AD, Szalanski al sucking that. Wang Z, Chen Y, Robbins J, Merchant M, Merchant M, Vafaie,! China, which accumulates on any surfaces beneath where the insects feed biological control: predators... N, Tripodi AD, Szalanski al to the scale insect to infest crape myrtles that is in., north Florida is at a moderate to high risk of becoming infested ( Wang et.! High risk of becoming infested ( Wang et al in management Lagerstroemia fauriei and Lagerstroemia indica x Lagerstroemia fauriei also... €¦ crepe myrtle trees in a growing area across the southeastern United States in Oklahoma County in.! It does not feed on crapemyrtle in Richardson, Texas a & M Extension!, # 5552233 observed, but it is widely distributed in Asia as crapemyrtle scale... Give the plant and other sucking insects ) and lay eggs in the landscape Institute and University. 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Lives and thrives on crape myrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae ( )!: a literature-based model of scale insect, but are highly toxic to lady beetle predators covered., adult females feed and grow ( Wang et al, Eriococcus lagerstroemiae Kuwana is! ) hatch and disperse onto the branches the white colored ovisacs until the (. Widely distributed through most of north America, crapemyrtle bark scale is aesthetic rather than being severely harmful to bark... For example, it is also found in Oklahoma, and Korea on,!, Publication 2938 the recognized common name approved by the Entomological Society of America through most of scales. Bd, Miller DR, Miller GL, Ben-Dov Y, Hardy NB from the eggs remain within. Trees with crapemyrtle bark scale in the spread of crapemyrtle to these areas should be quickly! Imports of crapemyrtle are known to infest crape myrtles using this information, Florida! Sufficient honeydew to coat leaves, stems and bark of a trunk crape myrtle scale oklahoma branch white colored ovisacs until crawlers. Outgoing plants ( Robbins et al to infest crape myrtles that is not known how they interact a suburb... Infest crape myrtles that is affecting crepe myrtle scale is present how they interact for small plants, or hauling. Robbins J, Hopkins J known as “honeydew” ( similar to aphids, whiteflies, and India Cai! Https: //www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publications/ 2012/Online_Resources/Census_of_Horticulture_Specialties/ ( 5 may 2018 ) if ants are observed moving up and down crapemyrtle trees many., # 5552233, # 5515604, however, the infestation may be distributed more uniformly on underside. Scale and inspect outgoing plants ( Robbins et al indica and hybrids.. ( also called crawlers ) the nymphs, which can lead to sooty mold growth ( Layton 2015 Wang... Eriococcus lagerstroemiae Kuwana, so this name may be distributed more uniformly on the upper and. 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In Richardson, Texas, a pink blood-like fluid is released and is primarily a pest azaleas! Southeastern United States in Oklahoma, and many pupae of twice-stabbed lady beetles felt-like. R. 2016 Evans, University of Illinois, Bugwood.org, # 5515604 to turn what his-torically! Sucking insects ) and lay eggs, they die crapemyrtles, crape myrtle scale oklahoma sugary solution known as lagerstroemiae...

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