When Hashimoto came home from the war, he learned that his entire family had been killed in the atomic bombing of Hiroshima on 7 August.  Graduating from this course on 30 June, Hashimoto was given command of submarine Ro-31, a coastal defense vessel. USS Grayback, one of the most successful submarines of the war, was a Tambor-class submarine launched on January 31, 1941 and was under the command of Lieutenant Commander John Anderson Moore.  The sub was a part of a large group of submarines which would support the Attack on Pearl Harbor. [Note 1] At the behest of Cady, Hashimoto took both a Japanese civil oath and a U.S. Navy oath and so he could be charged for perjury in both nations if he lied. While penned up in his dormitory during the trial, he was treated more like an honored guest than an enemy officer who had caused the deaths of so many American boys.  She then sped back to Kure and arrived there on 20 January. Japanese submarines in the area, including the I-176, were ordered to travel north to carry out an attack but the I-176 was the only Japanese vessel to successfully engage one of the US vessels. World War II: Yanagi Missions — Japan’s Underwater Convoys On Sunday, June 22, 1941, Adolf Hitler attacked the Soviet Union and committed his forces to a war of attrition that could not be won. Her wartime total was 60,038 tons. On 1 March, she was ordered to Iwo Jima to support the battle taking place there. He died in 2000. On 15 November, as a sub-lieutenant, Hashimoto was assigned to the crew of the gunboat Hozu, and was promoted to lieutenant on 1 December. Highly publicized at the time, the improvised appendectomy carried out by one pharmacist's mate while his boat was running submerged is typical of the leadership abilities and training of wartime U.S. Navy submarine force personnel—even in non-combat situations.  On 9 December 1945 he was transported from Tokyo to Oakland, California aboard an aircraft of the Naval Air Transport Service. Six torpedoes were speeding, fanwise, toward the enemy ship.  I-58 was commissioned on 13 September 1944 and Hashimoto commanded her during her shakedown cruises, commanding his men on repeated drills without shore leave. Hashimoto commanded coastal patrol and training submarines off Japan for much of the war, and in 1944 took command of I-58, a submarine which was equipped to carry kaiten manned torpedoes. 543, Japan Center for Asian Historical Records, reference code C13072079100 (jp), Naval appointment dated 15 July 1941, Publication (limited access) No. 155, Japan Center for Asian Historical Records, reference code C13072159300 (jp), http://www.al.com/news/mobile/index.ssf/2016/07/uss_indianapolis_survivor_youv.html, Interrogation of Commander Mochitsura Hashimoto, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mochitsura_Hashimoto&oldid=959136972, Japanese military personnel of World War II, Recipients of the Order of the Rising Sun, Recipients of the Order of the Sacred Treasure, Recipients of the Order of the Golden Kite, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 May 2020, at 09:31. Bringing the boat on to a course parallel with the enemy, we waited anxiously.  A second supply mission the following month failed. The American submarine fleet was largely the product the decision by the Navy General Board in 1911 to consider the development of a "fleet submarine", capable of sustained 21 knot speed and good seakeeping so that it could operate with the battle fleet. With Cliff Robertson, Gia Scala, Teru Shimada, Patricia Cutts. On 13 May 1944, Fleet Radio Unit Pacific (FRUPAC), Hawaii (successor to Commander Joe Rochefort’s Station Hypo), intercepted and decoded a transmission from Japanese submarine I-16 to Japanese Commander Submarine Division 7 that gave its estimated time of arrival off Buin, Bougainville, Solomon Islands as 2200 22 May.  On the morning of May 16, the destroyers began to comb the waters off Buka. She arrived off the coast of Guam at 03:00 on 11 January 1945 and Hashimoto ordered four kaitens launched. In March 1943 I-176 narrowly avoided destruction when she was attacked at Lae, Papua New Guinea by US B-25 Mitchell bombers while unloading supplies. Mochitsura Hashimoto (橋本以行, Hashimoto Mochitsura, 1909 – 25 October 2000) was a Japanese officer and a submarine commander in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II.  For the remainder of 1942, Hashimoto operated his ship in home waters off Yokosuka training crews and trying new equipment and doing research for the development of Japanese submarine doctrine. He completed his final assignment in June 1946, when he became a civilian merchant shipping captain, and opted to retire from the military. I-176 was sunk in May 1944 in the western Pacific by the American destroyers Franks, Haggard and Johnston. 1994, Japan Center for Asian Historical Records, reference code C13072147800 (jp), Ministry of Demobilization appointment dated 11 June 1946, Publication No. She then moved to Hirao where she loaded six kaitens. , In May 1944, Lieutenant Commander Hashimoto was given command of submarine I-58 which was still under construction in Sasebo.  For the duration of his time in the United States, he spoke through translator Francis Earl Eastlake from the Office of Naval Intelligence. On 9 August she launched two kaitens against a convoy, and Hashimoto claimed a destroyer probably sunk. However, apart from the German U-Boat commanders, the most successful submarine commander of World War II was an Italian officer, Lieutenant Commander Gianfranco Gazzana Priaroggia.  Before Hashimoto could begin his new duties, however, he was summoned by the United States military to be a witness for the prosecution in the court-martial against Indianapolis commander Captain Charles B. McVay III, who was on trial on charges of negligence leading to the ship's sinking. At the behest of his father, he applied for the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy.  Charles Butler McVay III was exonerated in 2001. After a number of unsuccessful operations, under the command of Hashimoto I-58 sank Indianapolis on 30 July with two Type 95 torpedoes while on a midnight patrol. In total, Morton sank 19 ships totaling 50,000 tons, making him the third most successful submarine commander in the U.S. Fleet. Japanese submarines in the area, including the I-176, were ordered to travel north to carry out an attack but the I-176 was the only Japanese vessel to successfully engage one of the US vessels. Notes: Gross with his seven patrols, made in two submarines, carried out the most patrols in the top 10 US Navy Submarine Captains. I shouted as each torpedo struck home, and the crew danced for joy.. The other destroyers joined in, carrying out a series of depth-charge attacks that continued for several hours.  It was the first time that an officer of a nation at war with the United States had testified against an officer of the U.S. Navy in a court martial. After returning to Sydney, Australia, to carry out repairs, Chester had to withdraw to Norfolk, Virginia, for repairs which kept her out of the war until September 1943. 273, Japan Center for Asian Historical Records, reference code C13072074800 (jp), Naval appointment dated 20 May 1939, Publication (limited access) No. ... At last in a loud voice, I gave the order 'Stand by—fire!' In 1937, Hashimoto married Nobuko Miki, the daughter of a successful Osaka businessman. , After several months of repairs in Japan, I-176 returned to Lae, Sio and Finschhafen in New Guinea to carry out a number of successful supply runs between July and October 1943. On October 13, an American carrier group was sighted off the Solomon Islands. USS Seawolf under a new Captain, and on her 15th. He was 93. Richard O’Kane was born in 1911 Dover, New Hampshire. 736, Japan Center for Asian Historical Records, reference code C13072082900 (jp), Naval appointment dated 2 February 1942, Publication (limited access) No. , In December 1990, Hashimoto met with some of the survivors of the Indianapolis at Pearl Harbor, where he stated through a translator: "I came here to pray with you for your shipmates whose deaths I caused," to which survivor Giles McCoy simply responded: "I forgive you.". Hashimoto reported a tanker assumed sunk. The most successful Dutch submarine to operate out of Fremantle was the Zwaardvisch (Swordfish). She remained in port because of continued mining conducted by U.S. Army Air Forces, and departed on 16 July on another war patrol. Directed by Paul Wendkos.  In 1943, he was given command of submarine I-158 for coastal defense, and later in the year was given command of submarine Ro-44 for the same duties.  On 20 November, he was given command of the destroyer Yukikaze, among the few Imperial Navy ships to survive the war, and assigned to repatriation duties, returning troops to Japan from overseas. Before commanding Tang, O'Kane served in the highly successful USS Wahoo as executive officer and approach officer under noted Commander Dudley "Mush" Morton. I-176 was ordered in 1939 but construction did not begin until 1941 at the Kure Naval Arsenal in Hiroshima prefecture. The tonnage figures (and sometimes the number of ships sunk) is still being debated among historians.  She spotted a tanker escorted by a destroyer and Hashimoto ordered her to launch two kaitens at 14:31 and 14:43. Only Slade Cutter and Richard O’Kane, who left the Wahoo after its fifth patrol to assume his own command, had better records. Commander Matsumura Kanji, captain of I-21, was the most successful submarine commander to hunt the Australian coast. The torpedo-release switch pressed at intervals of two seconds and then the report came from the torpedo room, "All tubes fired and correct." The submarines were so successful that by early 1944, they struggled to … In his ten combat patrols, five in Wahoo and five commanding Tang, O'Kane participated … However, his future would be with those who dwell beneath the surface and after submarine instruction in 1938, he was assigned the USS Argonaut. In fact, O’Kane was the supreme submarine ace of the war and won the Medal of Honor. Several American submarines in the Truk area were informed that a Japanese submarine was in the vicinity. 342, Japan Center for Asian Historical Records, reference code C13072075900 (jp), Naval appointment dated 1 December 1939, Publication (limited access) No. The crew were all agog, awaiting the order to fire the torpedoes. patrol, was sunk by friendly fire on the the 3rd. I made my living practicing law before Navy courts and boards for 25 years, and this reaches an all-time low in courts, board or congressional investigation. On November 16, the probable attacker, USS Corvina, was itself sunk by I-176. , After his return to Japan, Hashimoto worked as a demobilization officer with the naval section of the Ministry of Demobilization, responsible for demobilizing veterans and dismantling what remained of the Japanese Navy. A message from I-176 was intercepted which reported that the vessel had "Received direct torpedo hit en route to Truk, no damage". Hashimoto testified in the court on 13 December in a crowded courtroom.  He later wrote of the incident: We had the moon behind us and the enemy ship was now clearly visible. Following his appearance at the trial, Hashimoto remained in U.S. custody under guard until early 1946, when he was returned to Japan aboard USS Effingham. She subsequently returned to Truk in April 1944 and was despatched to Buka Island at the far western end of the Solomon Islands archipelago, where she was to undertake another supply run. Christened three months after Pearl Harbor, Wahoo was commanded by the astonishing Dudley W. "Mush" Morton, whose originality and daring new techniques led to results unprecedented in naval history; among them, successful "down the throat" barrage against an …  After the war, it was confirmed Indianapolis was the only ship I-58 had sunk. It had presumably been attacked by an American submarine but had escaped damage, most likely due to a defective torpedo. Haggard made a sonar contact at 4°1′S 156°29′E / 4.017°S 156.483°E / -4.017; 156.483.  She was ordered out again on 2 April sailing to support Japanese forces at the Battle of Okinawa. Though Hashimoto was himself known to be innocent of any war crimes and was generally treated well by his guards, he spoke little English and was subject to derision in the press. , Hashimoto spoke first with judge advocate Captain Thomas J. Ryan for four hours on 11 December. The career of the USS Wahoo in sinking Japanese ships in the farthest reaches of the Empire is legendary in submarine circles. Hashimoto was called to testify on behalf of the prosecution at the court-martial of Charles B. McVay III, the commanding officer of Indianapolis, a move which was controversial at the time. 91. Then another column of water arose from alongside the Number 2 turret and seemed to envelop the whole ship—"A hit, a hit!"  Her commander, Yahachi Tanabe, was wounded by machine-gun fire from the bombers and had to relinquish command a few days later.  She picked up reports of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima in intercepted radio transmissions on 7 August but Hashimoto continued to hunt for Allied ships south of Bungo Strait. She was spotted by a US patrol plane whose radio reports summoned the destroyers USS Franks (DD-554), USS Haggard (DD-555) and USS Johnston (DD-557) to the scene. Rear Adm. Eugene B. Fluckey, one of America’s most daring submarine commanders of World War II and a recipient of the Medal of Honor, died Thursday in Annapolis, Md. During his career, this Italian submarine ace sent more enemy shipping to the bottom than anyone from the Soviet, Japanese, British or American navies. She remained in port there until March, likely due to supply shortages. While there, she was attacked by aircraft 50 times. The list of most successful U-boat commanders contains the top-scoring German U-boat commanders in the two World Wars based on their total tonnage sunk.. On completion in 1942 the vessel was renamed from I-76 to I-176 and was sent initially to Truk in September 1942.  During that time, his brother was killed in action fighting on the Chinese mainland. Hashimoto later became a Shinto priest. She made 10 war patrols total and is credited with sinking 14 ships, totaling 63,835 tons, including an Imperial Japanese Navy submarine. Mochitsura Hashimoto was born in 1909 in Kyoto, Japan the eighth of nine children and fifth son of a kannushi (Shinto priest).  The I-176's log recorded that it had fired three torpedoes, claiming two hits which destroyed the target. Commanded by Dudley “Mush” Morton, Wahoo was one of the most successful American submarines of World War II. , I-176 was subsequently converted to a transport role, with her 120 mm (4.7 in) gun being removed and fittings for a landing craft being added. 673, Japan Center for Asian Historical Records, reference code C13072081600 (jp), Naval appointment dated 31 October 1941, Publication (limited access) No. There were Japanese submarine commanders who scored amazing victories, sinking major Allied warships and one, though it was not known until after the war, who launched the single most devastating attack in submarine history, sinking an aircraft carrier, a destroyer and badly damaging a battleship with one spread of torpedoes. In 1999, he assisted the surviving crew of the Indianapolis in attempting to exonerate McVay of blame for the ship's sinking, writing a letter to the Senate Armed Services Committee in which he stated, just as he had more than five decades earlier, that even if the Indianapolis had been zigzagging, there would have been no difference: "I would have been able to launch a successful torpedo attack against his ship whether it had been zigzagging or not." The Japanese submarine I-176 (I-76, until 20 May 1942) was a "Kaidai" type of cruiser submarine active in World War II. Flasher, like most submarines of its time, was named after a fish.  It was the last Japanese naval success of World War II. As commander of U-35, U-23and U-99he sank 47 merchant ships totalling 272,043 tons in a remarkably short period of time, being captured in March 1941 and spending the rest of the war in the Bowmanville POW camp, Canada. All was dead quiet ... the favorable moment for firing was approaching.  Throughout the year, the submarine conducted training maneuvers with a group of midget submarines. On completion in 1942 the vessel was renamed from I-76 to I-176 and was sent initially to Truk in September 1942. Congress warmed to the idea of a weapon that might render expensive battleships obsolete, and on 30 June 1914 authorized construction of eight submarines, of which at least one was to … Commissioned on Sept. 25, 1943, USS Flasher earned three Presidential Unit Citations and six battle stars. Built for the Royal Navy as the “T” Class HMS Talent, it was transferred to the RNN in 1943, and began operations in Australian waters from September 1944. She heard explosions at 15:21 and 15:31 but her crew was unable to determine if the kaitens had struck their targets. Hashimoto ordered I-58 northward looking for additional ships to attack. Read about the U.S. Navy's most successful World War II submarine commanders in The Sextant, the NHHC blog.. Leaving home for the first time, Hashimoto then attended the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy at Etajima for four years, studying Japanese history, engineering, and naval tactics, as well as judo and other military athletics. 453, Japan Center for Asian Historical Records, reference code C13072077800 (jp), Naval appointment dated 15 October 1940, Publication (limited access) No. The kaitens tentatively claimed a tanker sunk, though it was unable to verify if the ship had actually been struck. Hashimoto died at the age of 91 on 25 October 2000, five days before a resolution to posthumously exonerate Captain McVay was passed by the U.S. Congress and signed by President Bill Clinton.  He completed training on the submarine in December 1944.  Upon completion of this training, he was assigned to the submarine I-123 on 20 March 1940 as torpedo officer, transferring to the I-155 on 15 October in the same role.  Selected for submarine school the following year, Hashimoto was assigned to the Yokosuka Naval District on 20 May 1939 and enrolled in a six-month torpedo course on 1 June, subsequently entering the naval submarine school as a Class B student on 1 December. The Navy Cross. Japanese industry depended for survival on access to … Otto Kretschmer (1912–1998) was the most successful of the World War II Aces of the Deep. " Hashimoto later authored a book Sunk: The Story of the Japanese Submarine Fleet, 1941–1945 in which he detailed Japanese submarine operations in the war, including an account of the sinking of Indianapolis.  Among the public responses, socialite Evalyn Walsh McLean sent an angry telegram to Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal to complain, and U.S. Representative Robert L. Doughton publicly stated, "It is the most contemptible thing I ever heard of to summon a Jap officer to testify against one of our own officers. was a Japanese Type B1 submarine which saw service during World War II in the Imperial Japanese Navy. Recognizing his calling to serve at sea, he attended the US Naval Academy in Annapolis and graduated in 1934.  At 23:35 that evening, Hashimoto spotted the heavy cruiser Indianapolis at 10,000 metres (33,000 ft) cruising for his position at medium speed. He told them the visibility was good on the night of the attack and he had been able to easily spot the Indianapolis. Steaming eastward, she surfaced 10 miles (16 km) off Waikiki on 6 December. He was captain of the submarine I-58, which sank the American heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis in 1945 after its delivery of parts and enriched uranium for the first atomic weapon used in wartime, Little Boy, prior to the attack on Hiroshima. 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