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The caste system defines social classes by a number of hierarchical endogamous groups often termed jaat. 3 But as per the time passed it got lost its basis and became a social hierarchy, initially it was based on their works not by birth but later on it turned out to a varna system to caste system. Caste in Sanskrit stands for ‘Varna’ which means ‘Colour’. For understanding hierarch process we will take an example of India in which there were four varnas in which Brahmins hold the superior position and Shudras had the lowest position among everyone. According to this theory, the caste system is of divine origin. Dumont maintains that many of the lndologists confuse the Varna with caste, mainly because the classical literature is concerned almost entirely with the varnas. They called it Dasa Varna — Dasa people. The Nepalese caste system was the traditional system of social stratification of Nepal.The Nepalese caste system broadly borrows the classical Hindu Chaturvarnashram model consisting of four broad social classes or varna: Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Sudra.. It says caste system is an extension of the varna system, where the 4 varnas originated from the body of Bramha. Caste (Anglicized from of Casta), or Jāti, is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a style of life which often includes an occupation, ritual status in a hierarchy, and customary social interaction and exclusion based on cultural notions of purity and pollution. The Sanskrit term varna is derived from the root vṛ, meaning "to cover, to envelop, count, classify consider, describe or choose" (compare vṛtra).. Varna is a fundamental concept underlying the Hindu society. I THE BASIS OF CASTE HIERARCHY Sociologists and social anthropologists have carried out large numbers of shtdies on the But, this controversy is not so much because of the intrinsic concept, but instead because of what it has grown to become and how it is perceived today by many people. Etymology and origins. Portuguese employed casta in the modern sense when they applied it to hereditary Indian social groups called as ‘jati’ in India. Jati, caste, in Hindu society. It was ... communities and that of the Hindu caste hierarchy. The ideation of purity and pollution is the major aspect in understanding the hierarchy process of the caste system. Let us get some prior insight into class, caste, and hierarchy in India. The rigid hierarchy of the Indian caste system faced resistance by various humanitarians who worked hard to abolish the system. Varna System in Ancient India was based on occupation, but with time it turned to a rigid caste system.. ‘Varna’ literally means group in Sanskrit.With the advent of the Aryans, the ancient Indian society got divided into four sections - Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra. The varna system was a way of roughly describing the social stratification at a very high level of generality; the ‘caste system’ was an empirical description of the hierarchy that existed primarily (and, perhaps, exclusively) among the so-called lower castes. Caste, caste [Port., casta=basket], ranked groups based on heredity within rigid systems of social stratification, especially those that constitute Hindu In… Sanskrit, Sanskritization The term Sanskritization was first coined by the Indian sociologist Mysore Narasimhachar Srinivas (1916–1999) in his Oxford Universit… Pahari, Pahari ETHNONYMS: none Orientation Identification. The modern day class and caste conflict in India traces its root to the Varna system. But the Mughal rule also incited anti-muslim sentiments in rural which further strengthened the caste system. It has been pointed out by others that caste hierarchy is not a fixed hierarchy; rather it is context-specific and fluid and contains seeds of contestation among various castes. It is rarely observed that the social hierarchy is not just limited to Hinduism but it stays intact in any Indian religious society; Buddhists, Jainas, Sikhs, Christians and Muslims have their own caste hierarchies and restrictions. According to S. A Nigosian in World Religions, the caste system, “Is its (India) system of social stratification”(Nigosian 136). The caste system is one of the unique features in Indian Society. They merely tried to change their position in the system. In Hinduism, the Varna System was based on class, colour, guna and yoga. The brahman, or priestly, caste represents society's head; the kshatriya, or warrior, caste are its arms; the vaishya caste—traders and landowners—are the legs; and the sudra caste—the servants of the other three—are the feet. India is known to be a diverse country and is among the vibrant country whose roots can be traced down back to thousands of years. Dominant caste as a concept is too general to be used to distinguish between caste hierarchy and Varna hierarchy. Varna, thus, provided a framework which conditioned all Indian thinking about and reaction to caste (Hsu, 1963:96). Caste and Class Fig. The Caste system is the social hierarchy in India. Susan Bayly summarises that Manusmriti and other scriptures helped elevate Brahmins in the social hierarchy and these were a factor in the making of the varna system, but the ancient texts did not in some way “create the phenomenon of caste” in India. It drew its operational legiti-macy from ideas like varna, karma and dharma pronounced in a book called the Manusmriti and some other ancient texts. Caste and Varna are to be understood with relationship of hierarchy and power. Jati and Varna are classifications of the traditional Indian Society. It is not limited to ancient India, it is still prevalent today. In Indian philosophy, jati (genus) describes any group of things that have generic characteristics in common. Next are the Kshatriyas, or political rulers and soldiers. Caste ,Class & Occupation The caste system is a classification of people into four hierarchically ranked castes called varnas. Purity and Pollution is also known as the basis of untouchability practice. Indo-Aryans used the term 'Varna' which means 'colour'. Caste system or Varna system is an ancient classification of Hindus for the society in order to distinguish among one's qualities and functions. The term is derived from the Sanskrit jāta, “born” or “brought into existence,” and indicates a form of existence determined by birth. Changing Societies. Hierarchy thesis, that is primarily a book-view, brings out the traditional or ritual based hierarchical character of the system; whereas difference thesis, which is based on the facts from the field, brings out the contested character of caste hierarchy, shows up its discrete character of caste and understands caste as a system of differentiation. Sociologically, jati They started caste system to make a social hierarchy.Everyone was forced to do the job that was allowed in their caste.Aryans kept themselves in higher caste and pushed native Indians to lower caste. It is not just about the way how society is structured but also it has become a part of a man’s identity. The term caste is derived from the Portuguese casta, meaning “race, lineage, breed” and there is no exact translation in Indian or any Sanskrit derived languages to this word but varna and jati are the two most proximate terms. The varna were a part neither of the varna scheme nor of the caste system. Caste Hierarchy and Discrimination in the Vedas hinduismtoday.com April 26, 2016 ... Varna is different from jaathi and is based on guna and karma-see Gita ch4-13 Purusha suktham talks of varna and never talks of Gita In fact, it describes all varnas as arising from God Himself ... Far too many Hindus, including most Dalits, seem to believe that caste hierarchy and discrimination is sanctioned by the Vedas. At the top of the hierarchy were the Brahmins who were mainly teachers and intellectuals and came from Brahma’s head. Racial theory (Varna) According to Mazumdar Caste system originated after the arrival of Aryans in India. Many people find it difficult to understand the prevalence of hierarchy in our society. Its root can be traced back to thousands of years. While individual castes moved up or down, the structure remained the same. First, caste refers to jati, not varna. The pernicious aspects of jati, varna and class, therefore, still permeate our families, localities and political institutions. Caste Varna has been the thorn in the flesh of this sectarian nationalist ideology. This is a common observation about the system which is based on the modern caste system rather than the ancient varna system. Jathi, Varna, and Caste and Gender Discrimination. Caste translates to Jati and generally designates a group that can vary in size from a handful to many thousands. 178 Sociological Bulletin II Sikhism and Caste Hierarchy The emergence of the Sikh movement was an important occurrence in medieval Punjab. Thus, it becomes very important to understand its origin. These ideas were socially translated into a hierarchical order, structured around the notions of purity and pollution. Varna and Caste are controversial issues today. This metaphor stresses the idea of hierarchy as well as that of interdependence. Jana → Jati → Caste The word caste derives from the Spanish and Portuguese “casta”, means 'race, lineage, or breed'. This issue also has its ramifications for non-Hindu communities, such as Muslims, Christians and Sikhs, which are large in size and do not have Dharma-karma . The word means "color, tint, dye or pigment" in the Mahabharata. Rigvedic literature stresses very significantly the difference between the Arya and Dasa, In urban India today, caste in its varna sense is considered an infliction of the past, or at worst an archaic practice in the underdeveloped hinterlands. By admin On March 24, ... depending upon their relative position in the caste hierarchy. The phenomenon of caste conflict and struggle for power makes quite clear that castes operate in the villages as separate groups, independent of an all-encompassing caste hierarchy. The Brahmans, usually priests and scholars, are at the top. caste was embedded in the religious ideology of the Hindus. The word appears in the Rigveda, where it means "colour, outward appearance, exterior, form, figure or shape". They are classified according to occupation and determine access to wealth, power, and privilege. But the metaphor of caste “treated racial hierarchy as if it were a timeless, natural form of social organization.” During the postwar era, the linking of race to caste disappeared. Varna basically means inherent nature or Svabhava. These classes are known as Varans and are as follows, The Varna of Brahmans, commonly identified with priests and the learned class, The Varna of Kshatriyas, associated with rulers and warriors including property owners. 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